Cardiac and hepatic iron and ejection fraction in thalassemia major: Multicentre prospective comparison of combined Deferiprone and Deferoxamine therapy against Deferiprone or Deferoxamine Monotherapy
1 Cardiovascular MR Unit, Fondazione G, Monasterio CNR-Regione Toscana and Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa, Italy
2 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy
3 Ematologia-Emoglobinopatie, Civico Hospital - ARNAS, Palermo, Italy
4 U.O. Microcitemie, A. O, ”Bianchi-Melacrino-Morelli”, Reggio Calabria, Italy
5 Centro Microcitemia – D.H. Thalassemia Poliambulatorio “Giovanni Paolo II”, Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza IRCCS, Opera di Padre Pio da Pietrelcina, San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy
6 Centro Talassemie, “Sant′Eugenio” Hospital, Roma, Italy
7 Centro Microcitemia, “Garibaldi” Hospital, Catania, Italy
8 Department of Pediatrics, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
9 Centro per la Cura delle Microcitemie, Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli, Italy
10 U.O. Pediatria II, Az. Osp. “Villa Sofia”, Palermo, Italy
11 Department of Pediatrics, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
12 Microcitemia - Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale TA/1, Presidio Ospedaliero Centrale, Taranto, Italy
13 U.O.S. Talassemia, A.O. Umberto I, Siracusa, Italy
14 Radiology Department, “John Paul II” Catholic University, Campobasso, Italy
15 Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2013, 15:1 doi:10.1186/1532-429X-15-1Published: 16 January 2013
Due to the limited data available in literature, the aim of this multi-centre study was to prospectively compare in thalassemia major (TM) patients the efficacy of combined deferiprone (DFP) and deferoxamine (DFO) regimen versus either DFP and DFO in monotherapy by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) over a follow up of 18 months.
Among the first 1135 TM patients in the MIOT (Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassemia) network, we evaluated those who had received either combined regimen (DFO + DFP, N=51) or DFP (N=39) and DFO (N=74) monotherapies between the two CMR scans. Iron overload was measured by T2* multiecho technique. Biventricular function parameters were quantitatively evaluated by cine images.
The percentage of patients that maintained a normal global heart T2* value was comparable between DFP+DFO versus both monotherapy groups. Among the patients with myocardial iron overload at baseline, the changes in the global heart T2* and in biventricular function were not significantly different in DFP+DFO compared with the DFP group. The improvement in the global heart T2* was significantly higher in the DFP+DFO than the DFO group, without a difference in biventricular function. Among the patients with hepatic iron at baseline, the decrease in liver iron concentration values was significantly higher with combination therapy than with either monotherapy group.
In TM patients at the dosages used in the real world, the combined DFP+DFO regimen was more effective in removing cardiac iron than DFO, and was superior in clearing hepatic iron than either DFO or DFP monotherapy. Combined therapy did not show an additional effect on heart function over DFP.